1. Quartz crystal oscillator: Its function is equivalent to the balance wheel with hairspring in a mechanical clock. The function of the crystal oscillator is to make the circuit generate a stable frequency oscillation signal, which is a key component to ensure the accuracy of timekeeping. Generally speaking, the higher the frequency of the crystal oscillator, the higher the precision of the second pulse after frequency division, and the more accurate the travel time.
There are two main types of crystal oscillator frequencies for quartz clocks: one is a low-frequency type with an oscillation frequency of 32.768kHz; the other is a high-frequency type with an oscillation frequency of 4.1943MHz. In order to reduce the external influence and enhance the anti-vibration and impact resistance, the vibrator is sealed in a cylindrical metal or glass shell during manufacture, leaving only the pins.
2. CMOS integrated circuit: Produce accurate reference frequency together with peripheral components, and output stable drive signal and alarm signal.
CMOS integrated circuits have the characteristics of low working voltage, low power consumption, strong anti-interference ability, and long life. Its internal parts include oscillation, frequency division, narrow pulse formation, driving, and control. Like crystal oscillators, it is also divided into high-frequency and low-frequency applications.
3. Fine-tuning capacitor: Its function is similar to the speed adjustment needle of a mechanical clock. It is designed to eliminate the error of the resonant frequency of the quartz crystal and the influence of the distributed capacitance on the oscillation frequency. An external capacitor is used to correct the oscillation frequency to meet the travel time. Accuracy.
When the quartz clock travels fast, the capacitance of the capacitor can be increased, on the contrary, the capacitance of the capacitor can be reduced.
4. Stepping motor: The function is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The iron core of the motor stator coil is made of permalloy material with high permeability. The DC resistance of the coil varies from product to product, generally 350～500Ω.
5. Signal ring device: It is a device that converts alarm signal or time signal into sound. Under the control of the integrated circuit, the buzzer or speaker is outputted by the signal generating circuit and amplified to drive the buzzer or speaker to sound.
6. Brief description of the working principle: After the power is turned on, the integrated circuit and its peripheral quartz crystal, adjustment capacitors, etc. will generate a standard 4194304Hz or 32768Hz oscillation signal, which is processed into a 1Hz precision by the internal frequency divider circuit and narrow pulse forming circuit inside the integrated circuit. After the second pulse signal, the pulse signal is added to the stepping motor through the driving circuit. Under the second pulse drive of the stepping motor, the magnetic field generated by the stator coil changes with the alternating pulses. The rotor makes 180° steps per second. The pitch angle rotates, and then drives the transmission gear to make the entire mechanical gear train and pointer work, and display the time. After setting the alarm time function, when the operation reaches the set time, the integrated circuit outputs the audio signal to the alarm device to send out the alarm time signal.