Before 1300 AD, humans mainly used astronomical phenomena and continuous movement of flowing materials to time. For example, the sundial is the azimuth timing of the sunshade; the leaking pot and the hourglass are flow meters that utilize water flow and sand flow.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zhang Heng made a leaking water switch to the celestial instrument. The gear system was used to connect the scorpion and the chronograph leaking pot. The dripping water dripped the water to push the scorpion to rotate evenly. One day just turned one week. This is the earliest mechanical clock. In the third year of the Northern Song Dynasty (1088), Su Shi and Han Gonglian created the water transport instrument platform, which has used the escapement.
In 1350, Italy’s Dante made the first simple mechanical clock tower clock, the daily difference was 15 to 30 minutes, the indicating mechanism only had the hour hand; from 1500 to 1510, the German Henrys first used the steel spring to replace the heavy The hammer created a small mechanical clock with a squat-shaped escapement; before and after 1582, Galileo of Italy invented the gravity pendulum; in 1657, the Dutch Huygens introduced the gravity pendulum into the mechanical clock and created the pendulum clock.
In 1660, the British Hook invented the hairspring, and replaced the escapement with a receding escapement; in 1673, Huygens applied the governor composed of the balance spring to the portable timepiece; 1675 The Clemente of the United Kingdom made the simplest anchor escapement with a forklift device, which has been used in simple pendulum wall clocks.
In 1695, Tom Flat of England invented the escapement of the I-shaped wheel; in 1715, Graham of the United Kingdom invented the static escapement, which made up for the shortcomings of the receding escapement and laid the foundation for the development of precision mechanical watches. In 1765, the British Mach invented the free anchor escapement, the predecessor of the modern forklift escapement; from 1728 to 1759, Harrison of the United Kingdom produced a high-precision standard nautical clock; from 1775 to 1780, Arnold of the United Kingdom created a precision escapement.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the watch industry has gradually realized industrial production and reached a fairly high level. In the 20th century, with the rapid development of the electronics industry, battery-driven clocks, AC clocks, electromechanical watches, pointer-type quartz electronic clocks, and digital quartz electronic timepieces were successively introduced. The time difference between watches and clocks was less than 0.5 seconds, and watches entered microelectronics. A new era of quantization combining technology with precision machinery.
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